現代美術學報 | 41期

主編語
Editor-in-chief’s Note

主編語

Editor's Note

黃建宏 HUANG Chien-Hung

摘要

「跨領域」或說「跨域」,本身就是不同技術間的移轉、對話和連結,在臺灣複雜的多重殖性經驗和他治式的產業發展下,「投射」、「調準」、「改裝」和「批判」這四項成為1980 年代對於環境的結構性回應:對於國際化的積極投射;在活潑的資訊社會中,不斷調準著外來訊息的精確度以呼應在地價值的必要性;在結構性資源匱乏的狀態下,對於外來資訊和內部需求進行工具性的改裝;以在地創造力和地緣政治的連結,對於歐美知識系統進行批判。無疑地,許鈞宜的〈空中的機器之眼:垂直視域下的無人稱感知〉重新操演著上述1980 年代以降形成的結構性回應,藉由對Harun Farocki、Forensic Architecture,特別是Hito Steyerl 關於無人稱之眼的影像討論,這種無人稱之眼的影像或許足以被稱之為「總體之眼」的影像,「總體」意味著技術將觀看的關係擴及所有事物,讓影像成為所有事物的內在或身體。換言之,「影像」成為一個全面的「潛殖」之域。

 

然而,若我們回到相對於德國的「南方以南」:臺灣(希臘以南)。「南方」在中國的敘事中一直意味遠離權力中心的遷徙政權,多指長江以南,然而,「南方」在臺灣的1980 年代轉化成對抗威權的象徵性位置,指中國政權與臺北政權之外,而在1990 年代則變為對抗「西進」(親中)的「戒急用忍」政策中的政治經濟目標「新南向」(東南亞),直至二十一世紀,由高盛銀行在2005 年的年終報告中宣告的「未來11 國」,其中東南亞就有菲律賓、印尼和越南入列。可以想見,臺灣的「南方」並非一直都是指稱明確的地理位置,而更多是政治經濟上的機會與選擇,隨之帶動產業與技術的投入方向,甚至改變教育和藝文的走向。換言之,政治經濟一直都是「跨域」的重要條件因素,也是各種「跨域」的前衛實驗或具體行動的脈絡地景,呂佩怡的〈製造南方:「南方」作為台灣當代策展之方法〉便在這樣的背景下,調查並分析了三個臺灣近年以「南方」為題的展覽,藉此讓「南方」在當代藝術中的推進與發展,成為一個具有系譜的反思場域。

 

技術,一方面成為普遍可被學習、複製和挪用之「術」,另一方面逐漸發展為生物之「術」;當全面機器化(器官外置化)與全面反身性的生命治理(潛殖)匯聚在當代時,「跨域」既是權力優勢者的資本積累之「術」,卻也成為反抗權力者偽裝、滲透與鬥爭的解離資本之「術」。然而,當資本一如權力已經成為「關係」的實質內容時,它們便成為生命技術最為深刻的底蘊,使得抗爭者必須「扮演」,或說「生命」自身的活路就是「扮演」。張紋瑄的〈當言語得到身體:作為事件的講述表演〉嘗試將這樣的關係性生命技術予以脈絡化,並巧妙佈置出歐美優勢話語與陳界仁在地話語之間的對話關係,跳脫出臺灣一直以來的二元論動力(以東西對立、統獨作為內耗的動力),回到行為、扮演、表演在「行動」、「歷史」與「政治」上的本質性意涵。

 

「重思跨領域」首先必須離開跨國文化行銷的形式主義操作,而必須體認到「跨域」一直是涉及歷史和政治條件、甚至意義的「技術」課題,最後,在這個專題規劃企圖著力的就是呈現出「跨域」或「跨域之術」是生物的、也是生態的基本狀態,從粒線體到真核細胞、從原生到寄生、從影像自身到弱影像和機器之眼,或我們在此指稱的「總體之眼」,生命並非跨域所再現的對象,而就是跨域以己自身(en soi)。

Abstract

The trans-disciplinary practice itself is a transfer, dialogue, and connection between different technologies. In the context of Taiwan’s complex multi-colonial experience and the industrial development governed by the Other, “projection,” “calibration,” “modification,” and “critique” thus became four structural responses to the 1980s environment. In other words, these responses proactively project to internalization, constantly checking the accuracy of external information responding to the necessity of local value in a lively information society. Furthermore, in a state of structural resource scarcity, they modify the instrumentality of external information and internal needs modification of external information and systematically criticize Euro-American knowledge with the connection of local creativity and geopolitics. Undoubtedly, Hsu Chun-Yi re-manifests these structural responses developed since the 1980s in his “Eye of Aerial Machine: The Impersonal Perception of Vertical Horizon,” discussing practices of Harun Farocki, Forensic Architecture with a particular focus on Hito Steyerl’s image of nonhuman’s eyes. Such an image of the nonhuman’s eye might be called the “eye of totality,” which means that advances in technology extend the scope of viewing and make an image become the immanence or body of all things. In other words, “image” becomes a comprehensive “paracolonial” zone.

 

Now, we return to Taiwan, the further south of Germany (to the South of Greece). The “south” in Chinese mentality and narrative have always been standing for the migration regime, primarily referring to the south of the Yangtze River, while in the 1980s Taiwan, the “south” was transformed into a symbolic location of resistance to authoritarianism, referring to an area away from the Chinse and Taipei regime. In the 1990s, it became the political and economic target-- New Southbound (Southeast Asia) as the policy against the “Cautious Self-Restraint” strategy for “going west” (pro-China). Until the 21st century, Goldman Sachs named the “Next Eleven” list of countries in its annual report in 2005, including the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Therefore, we may conclude that the concept of “south” in Taiwan does not always refer to a specific geographical location, but political and economic opportunities and options, which have directed the industrial development and technological investment, and even changed the direction of education, art, and culture. In other words, political economy has always been an important factor of “trans-disciplinary” practices and the landscape of various “trans-disciplinary” avantgarde experiments or concrete actions. In “Making South: The ‘South’ as a Method in Taiwan Contemporary Curating,” Lu Pei-Yi investigates and analyzes three recent exhibitions in Taiwan under the theme of “the South,” making the advancement and development of the concept of the “South” in contemporary art a genealogical site of reflection.

 

On the one hand, technology becomes a “way of doing” that can be universally learned, replicated, and appropriated, and on the other hand, it has gradually developed into a “way of living.” When the extensive mechanization (exosomatisation) and the reflexive bio-politics (para-colonialism) converge in contemporary times, “trans-disciplinary” practices become a “technique” of capital accumulation for the privileged; however, it also serves as the “technique” of dismissing capital for those who resist the power to disguise, penetrate, and struggle. However, when capital, like power, has become the content of “relationship,” it becomes the deep-rooted connotations of life technique, making it necessary for those who resist to “play,” or rather, the way out of life itself is to “play a certain role.” Chang Wen-Hsuan then attempts to contextualize such a relational life technique in “When A Speech Acquires Its Body: Lecture Performance as An Event.” She cleverly sets up a conversational relationship between the dominant Euro-American discourse and the local language of Chen Chieh-Jen, breaking away from Taiwan’s long-standing dichotomic dynamics (the dynamics founded on the East-West confrontation and the unification/independence issue as the driving force of internal friction). Then, she returns to the essential significances of performance, role-playing, performing in “action,” “history,” and “politics.”

 

“Rethinking trans-disciplinary practices” must leave the formalistic manipulation of transnational cultural marketing and recognize “trans-discipline” itself has always been a “technical” issue engaging historical and political conditions and meanings. Finally, this issue attempts to present that “trans-discipline,” or the “technique of trans-disciplinary practices,” is a fundamental state of both biology and ecology. From the mitochondria to the eukaryote, from the indigenous species to the parasite, from the image itself to the poor image and the eye of machine, the “eye of totality,” we can conclude that life is not an object represented through trans-disciplinary practices, it is trans-disciplinary itself.

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空中的機器之眼: 垂直視域下的無人稱感知

Eye of Aerial Machine : The Impersonal Perception of Vertical Horizon

許鈞宜 HSU Chun Yi

國立臺北藝術大學美術學系博士生

Student of PhD Program, Department of Fine Arts, Taipei National University of Arts.

摘要

以攝影術為首的現代視覺工具與飛行技術呈現了同步發展,兩者皆徹底改變人類對時間與空間的感受性。由航空器(aircraft)與攝影機所共同生產的飛行視像,將是使智人能以思考一種非人狀態的現代縮影。此些觀看技術先是在科學與軍事領域上獲得急遽發展,諸如地理測量、軍事攝影、空中偵察等。同時,由鏡頭所代表的機器之眼亦超越了人類可感範疇,如同蘇聯導演維托夫(Dziga Vertov)的「電影眼」(kino-eye),即指涉著一隻無所不見的超人之眼。然而,隨著科技演進與過度部署,人類卻逐漸從影像機器的操作者,轉為僅被觀察、注視之對象。本文將以視覺機器的「飛行」開始,探討此一非人的觀看,並深入潛藏在其後的哲學問題。透過技術與藝術在不同脈絡下的跨域實踐,反映出內建於飛行影像的「無人稱性」(impersonality)。最終更試圖以影像的工具性與操作性,反思今日由眾多飛行機器的鳥瞰構成之「垂直視域」(vertical horizon)中的存有問題。

Abstract

Modern visual instruments, led by photography, almost kept pace with the development of flight technics, both of which revolutionized human perception of time and space. Images captured by eyes on aircraft, which is a modern microcosm that enables Homo sapiens can think in a nonhuman status. At first these optical technics have developed rapidly in scientific and military fields, such as geographical observation, military photography and aerial reconnaissance. On the other hand, eyes on flying machine completely pass over humans’ perceptional limitation, hence the Soviet director Dziga Vertov's concept ‘kino-eye’, referring to an all-seeing eye of superman. Nowadays, however, with technological development of visual machine and the consequent overuse, the role of humans as operator of machine has shifted to object being observed. This article begins with the "flight" of visual machine to explore its non-human view, in an attempt to analyze its philosophical nature. In this sense, the article delves into the nature of "impersonality" in the said images by studying trans-disciplinary practice of art and technics from different contexts. Finally, it inquires the status of being in today's “vertical horizon”, composed of multiple bird view images from flying machines with the operation of images.

關鍵字:飛行、技術、影像、視覺機器、無人稱

Keywords: flying, technic, image, visual machine, impersonal

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當言語得到身體: 作為事件的講述表演

When A Speech Acquires Its Body: Lecture Performance as An Event

張紋瑄 CHANG Wen Hsuan

國立臺北藝術大學美術學系博士生

Student of PhD Program, Department of Fine Arts, Taipei National University of Arts.

摘要

儘管「講述表演」(lecture performance)在近年逐漸成為常見的藝術實踐,但在面對此一結合講述及表演的混種形式時,基於不同領域及實踐位置,所發展出的不同定義,經常造成評判上的誤解。講述表演的發展,咸認為同步於1960 及70 年代前衛藝術、機制批判及另類教育的發生,2000 前後則迎來另一波高潮,本文藉由比較分析羅伯特・莫里斯(Robert Morris)《21.3》(1964)及薩維耶・勒華(Xavier Le Roy)《情境產品》(1999)兩件講述表演的經典作品,並回顧講述表演近年論述方向,在將「講述-表演」視為寄生關係的視角下,三分為「影像-言語-身體」,並裂解出其他組配:「言語-行動」及「論文-電影」,藉此,試圖在將講述表演視為當代藝術流行趨勢,或上個世紀歐美觀念藝術的遺緒之外,提陳以美台團辯士作為台灣講述表演的另類起源的可能性。

Abstract

Following the gradual acceptance of "lecture performance," the mixed origin of a lecture performance has also resulted in misjudged and insufficient reading due to a disciplinary-bonded position of recipiency. The emergence of lecture performance has been widely seen as a concurrence of the avant-garde movement, institutional critique, and alternative pedagogy proposal in the 1960 and 1970, which follows with another resurgence around 2000. Through comparative reading of two iconic works of lecture performances, namely Robert Morris’s 21.3(1964) and Xavier Le Roy’s Product of Circumstances(1999), the essay revisits the discursive development of lecture performances in recent years. By positioning “lecture-performance” in a parasitic framework of intersubjectivity, the paper examines the tripartite strsucture of “imagespeech-body” as well as other assemblages: “speech-act” and “essay-film”. The essay aims to propose an alternative genealogy of lecture performance in Taiwan by considering the role of Benshi facilitated through activities of the Taiwanese Cultural Association.

關鍵字:講述表演、辯士、寄生、言語行動理論

Keywords: Lecture Performance, Benshi, Parasite, Speech Act Theory

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製造南方: 「南方」作為台灣當代策展之方法

Making South: The “South” as a Method in Taiwan Contemporary Curating

呂佩怡 LU Pei-Yi

國立臺北教育大學當代藝術評論與策展研究全英文碩士學位學程副教授

Associate Professor, MA in Critical and Curatorial Studies of Contemporary Art, National Taipei University of Education

摘要

本文分析三個與「南方」相關之策展實踐:「南國.國南-台越藝術家交流計畫」(齁空間與Zero Station,2012 - 2013)、「南方:問與聽的藝術」(高雄市立美術館,2017)、「南方以南:南迴藝術計畫」(南迴四個鄉鎮多處空間與活動,2018)等,探討台灣作為一個多重殖民歷史的國家,置身於強權環繞的地緣競爭,「製造南方」作為策展方法的驅動力為何?是自我認同之探索,抑或符合政治正確?「南方」概念如何影響當代策展?「南方策展」實踐可能成為翻轉的利器,去動搖傳統慣習呈現邊緣地區藝術的方式,還是僅僅強化全球化藝術世界的現有階級?本文認為曖昧多義的「南方」在當代展覽之中持續現身,這些展覽也不斷拓展「南方」之於台灣的多面向意義:從地理區位到台灣內部的南北不均,到全球南方相關的現代性與生態議題,再到東南亞與南島語系等。

Abstract

This paper critically examines three exhibitions relating to the idea of “South”. In particular, it will analyze a number of case studies, such as South Country, South of Country – Vietnamese & Taiwanese Artists Exchange Project (Howl Space, Tainan, 2012-2013), The South: An Art of Asking and Listening (Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, 2017), The Hidden South (presented in multiple spaces across four towns in the south-link areas, 2018) and so on in order to probe the questions of curating in Taiwan in the context of its multi-layer colonized history, and as a country marked by geopolitical rivalry. What is driving force behind “making south” as a curatorial method? Is it an attempt to explore Taiwan’s identity or an expression of political correctness? How does the ambiguity of the idea of the “South” impact on contemporary curating? Could the practice of “Curating the South” become a strategy to unsettle conventional ways of presenting art from the margins, or does it simply reinforce the existing hierarchies of the globalized art world? This paper argues that the ambiguity of the idea of the “South” has frequently emerged in various exhibitions. In the context of Taiwan, a number of exhibitions have expanded the multi-faceted meaning of the “South,” marking its geo-cultural and geo-political location as well as defining its uneven internal development between the North and South and its modernity and ecological future as part of the Global South and as aligned with Southeast Asia and Austronesia.

關鍵字:製造南方、台灣當代藝術、策展研究、想像地理

Keywords: Making South, Taiwan Contemporary Art, Curatorial Studies, Imaged Geography

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Online ISSN 1560-4713
GPN 2008700071
更新日期:2021-07-26 11:10