現代美術學報│33期

 

主編語
Editor-in-chief’s Note

攝影在今日的菁英文化語境中,普遍被視為一種當代視覺藝術,而一般社會大眾長久以來也視攝影創作為一種容易接近或操作的美術形式。臺灣的攝影史雖有幾位學院內外孜孜不倦的研究者與著述者,但一個相對全面、集體、具有某種史觀或批判性的臺灣攝影史的論著,仍比較缺乏,有待更多的研究與書寫。本期的專題「寫真時代:日本殖民歷史與臺灣攝影經驗」,將攝影視為檔案與史料,通過對攝影檔案之不同功能或使用方式的考察,試圖梳理在日本殖民者的治理下,攝影所產生的政治、社會與文化作用。  檢閱完整文章   下載完整文章(PDF)

 

 

 

 

攝影作為民族誌方法:日治臺灣殖民地人類學的寫真檔案 

Photography as Ethnographic Method: The Anthropological Photographic Archives in Japanese Colonial Taiwan.

陳偉智  Chen Wei-chi

美國紐約大學歷史學博士候選人、臺灣大學歷史學博士班

Ph.D. Candidate, NYU, Ph.D. program, Dept. History, NTU

摘要

日本統治臺灣初始,臺灣原住民作為殖民者理蕃行政的對象,同時也是殖民地人類學的知識建構的對象。在殖民地治理與知識建構的展開過程中,也開始生產了民族誌影像檔案。臺灣原住民寫真檔案的形成,同時是殖民理蕃機構的官方民族誌與近代人類學運用攝影作為民族誌方法的產物。日治時期的人類學影像經驗(photographic experiences),除了作為原住民治理的紀實攝影記錄外,也是人類學以類型民族學影像,建構族群分類知識的再現紀錄。本文透過殖民統治初期的理蕃機構與人類學家的民族誌影像的分析,討論官方的紀實攝影,以及類型影像,並進一步透過人類學家田野日記中記錄的田野攝影經驗,討論影像檔案的生產過程,以及被拍攝者的反應。

 

Abstract

In the beginning of the Japanese colonial rule, Taiwanese aborigines soon became targets of the “savage administration” of the colonial government. They also were objects in the construction of the anthropological knowledge. In the unfolding of colonial governance and knowledge construction, the production of photographic images of Taiwanese aborigines developed as well. The formation of photographic archives of Taiwanese aborigines was part of official ethnography of the “savage administration” as well as the use of photograph as a modern ethnological method. Anthropological photographic experiences during this period were both records of documentary photography of aboriginal governance and of representation of constructing ethnic-type categories. Drawing on ethnographic photos taken by the “savage administration” and anthropologists, this article discusses official documentary photography and type photographs. It also analyses field experiences of anthropologists, the production processes of photographic archives, and the reaction of the photographed.

關鍵詞:民族誌方法、影像檔案、殖民地人類學、伊能嘉矩、鳥居龍藏、森丑之助、田代安定、移川子之藏、宮本延人
Keywords: ethnographic method, photographic archives, colonial anthropology, Ino kanori, Tori Ryuzo, Mori Usinosuke, Tashiro Yasusada, Utsurikawa Nenozo, Miyamoto Noboto

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攝影檔案與影像的現代性經驗:以1935年臺灣博覽會的照片展示、實踐與保存為起點 

Photographic Archives and Visual Modernity: A Case Study of the Taiwan Exhibition 1935

陳佳琦  Chen Chia-chi

國立成功大學多元文化研究中心博士後研究員

Post-Doc, the Center of Multiple-Cultural Studies, NCKU

摘要

本論文試圖從1935年的《始政四十周年記念臺灣博覽會會誌》以及《始政四十周年記念臺灣博覽會寫真帖》此兩份檔案中與臺灣博覽會相關的攝影照片作為閱讀對象,討論這些影像檔案的文件意義,並由攝影史的角度出發,探討當時的攝影活動與攝影新技術的展現,希冀更深入窺探日本殖民歷史與臺灣攝影現代性經驗之間的關係。

本文主要以「博覽會內的照片展示」、「博覽會下的攝影活動」與「紀錄博覽會的攝影檔案」三個面向來探查1935年的博覽會之攝影史料,從博覽會的照片使用與展示,看見攝影如何作為視覺載體、負責展示政績並教化的作用;而博覽會下的攝影活動則引領出了30年代的臺灣社會出現寫真攝影風潮的部分面向;最後,關於臺灣博覽會的攝影檔案,則可以看見攝影不僅協助檔案的紀錄與留存,更可以發現從這些紀錄檔案中窺見影像視覺現代性經驗之出現。

臺灣博覽會的影像檔案,不僅讓我們看見攝影技術、攝影的流行,同時也可以看見現代的視覺政治與帝國的視線。

 

Abstract

 

From reading photographs and related archives of Documents of Taiwan Exhibition of the Fortieth Anniversary of Governanceand , and Shashin Choof Taiwan Exhibition of the Fortieth Anniversary of Governance, this article discuss the meaning of these images archives which about activities and new techniques of photography, intending to understand the relationship of the Japanese Colonial Period and the visual modernity experience in Taiwan.

Photographic display in exhibition, photographic activities in exhibition and photographic archives about exhibition are three points this article trying to provide, then the interaction and cooperation between photography, exhibition, and visual politics from empire in modern history will be observed. First of all, to analyze photographic display in Exhibition, the education attempt behind a photo will be discover. Secondary, to survey photographic activities in exhibition can reach a small dimension in the trend of photography in 1930s. At last, to reading photographic archives about exhibition can help us finding out the construction of visual modernity in the Japanese Colonial Period.

關鍵詞:攝影、寫真、臺灣博覽會、檔案、視覺現代性
Keywords: Photography, Shashin, Taiwan Exhibition, Archives, Visual Modernity

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臺灣犯罪攝影前史:日本殖民凝視下之身份證照、犯罪指認與「土匪」影像敘事

The Early History of Criminal Photography in Taiwan: ID photographs, Criminal Identification and Visual Narratives of Anti-Japanese Armed Resistance under Japanese Colonial Gazes

梁秋虹 Liang Chiu-hung

中央研究院社會學研究所博士後

Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica

摘要

本文以「製作」「土匪」(臺灣武裝抗日勢力代稱)為研究主題,初探1895年至1915年「殖民地戰爭」狀態下的臺灣犯罪攝影早期發展階段。研究材料以總督府法規、官方文件及殖民影像為一手史料,包括原具政治機密檔案性質的戰爭攝影與司法攝影,並一一列舉與事件相關但尚未經研究探索的寫真帖。本文將聚焦最早期的三種犯罪影像生產場域:戰場、國境、監獄,考察兩種犯罪指認的視覺權力技術之爭:人相特徵書寫與肖像寫真攝影,最後對殖民史上最大規模的漢人武裝抗爭事件「西來庵事件」及其影像出版品進行文本分析。研究發現:一、就犯罪指認的身分機制,戰爭狀態下催生了如何區別「土匪」或「良民」的政治需求。臺灣史上最早的視覺身份證照機制(護照與簽證),來自於國境對特定可疑對象從嚴查驗的出入境管制與通關檢查。二、就犯罪指認的權力技術,在1910年代前,人相書寫在實務上是比司法攝影更主要的技術。三、就犯罪攝影的影像敘事,在戰爭暴力性的視野管制下,再也不見「土匪」之死,後期轉為強調「暴徒」暴力性。其次是,「匪徒」群眾影像的缺席及其「匪首」肖像的類型化,早期強調戰敗受降的匪首特寫與歸順式,後期的犯人照則更訴諸於司法審判意義下的影像罪犯。最後則從展示的政治,考察英雄或土匪影像的見真與欺偽,提醒歷史影像化的危險。

 

Abstract

This exploratory study investigates the earliest stages of the development of criminal photography in Taiwan under ‘colony warfare’ from 1895 to 1915. Using government regulations, official documents and colonial images as the primary sources, which mostly were classified archives including war photography and juridical photography, in addition to some unexplored book-form photographic albums, this paper will examine the making of ‘the bandits’ (Taiwanese Anti-Japanese Armed Guerrillas) by the colonial camera. The major findings are as follows: first, on criminal identification mechanisms, the invention of the earliest ID photograph mechanisms emerged from the border crossing inspection in order to target the suspect population under martial rule. Second, on the identification techniques, two competitive techniques were involved, namely the verbal portrait based on physiognomy description and the mug shot based on the Bertillon system. Third, the visual narratives of ‘the bandit’ changed as well. The war violence was increasingly un-visualized and even replaced by the violence of the revolt itself. Besides, the bandit portraits represented a kind of stereotype from the surrender of guerrillas to the real outlaw in the standardized form of mug shot. Finally, on the politics of the exhibition, these findings may have further implications for reflection on the nature of criminal photography and the colonial images as suspicious historical evidence.

關鍵字:殖民攝影、犯罪指認、身分證照、視覺政治、西來庵事件

Keywords: Colonial photography, Criminal identification, ID photograph, Visual Politics,Tapani incident

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臺灣「風景」的寫真建構:一個日治時代攝影的歷史初探

Constructing the Taiwanese “Landscape” : A Preliminary Study into the History of Photography during the Japanese Colonial Era

張世倫 Chang Shih-lun

倫敦大學金匠學院文化研究中心博士候選人

Ph.D. Candidate, Centre for Cultural Studies, Goldsmiths College, University of London.

摘要

風景與觀光概念的出現,是日治時代臺灣史的重要面向,而攝影術的各種運用,也在其中扮演了舉足輕重的角色。本文嘗試聚焦於此一面向,以攝影本身為問題意識,從四個角度作為切入點,試圖跨時性地考察日治時代臺灣攝影史裡,寫真術如何協助形構了殖民者凝視下的臺灣「風景」觀,並逐漸成為宣揚觀光旅遊之利器。首先以日本寫真先驅小川一真為線索,論述其寫真實踐裡所留下的臺灣風景痕跡;其次以「八景」活動為審視對象,關注日治時代殖民地臺灣的「風景」選拔活動裡,是如何與寫真產生交匯;第三部分則解析日本內地攝影名家岡田紅陽來臺拍攝的《臺灣國立公園寫真集》,並試圖闡述其中所體現的美學觀與特殊性;最後則以日治時代推廣勃興的鐵道旅行為線索,簡述其與攝影的關聯。

日治時代臺灣寫真發展裡,較為清楚的風景觀及其視覺實踐,大多仍都取決於殖民統治各個階段的政策目標與施政走向,而呈現出表面上歧異多樣、類型繁複,但實多屬殊途同歸的單一傾向——各種寫真實踐所欲建構的臺灣風景,多是為了符合某種殖民現代性視野下,一種與日本內地相互比較之下的,對於南國熱帶異地的觀看想像。

 

Abstract

This paper tries to investigate how the emerging idea of Taiwanese “landscape” was imagined and constructed by the gradual intersection and continuous interaction between photography and tourism during the Japanese colonial era. The argument mainly consists of four aspects: I will first delve into several Taiwan-related photographic albums and travel guides either heavily supervised or solely published by the renowned photographer-cum-printmaker OGAWA Kazumasa around the turn of the 20th century. Then the focus will be on the gradual evolution of “the Eight Views of Taiwan” activities and how these campaigns intersected with the practice of photography. The third part will involve an in-depth reading into The Photographic Album of the National Parks in Taiwan by Japanese photographer OKADA Koyo, analyzing both its visual achievement and cultural limitation. The conclusion of this paper will draw attention to the popular phenomenon of railway tour during the colonial era, stressing how its cultural significance towards the construction of the idea of “landscape” was related to its full exploitation of photographic images in various publications.

關鍵字:攝影、臺灣攝影史、風景、觀光、日治時代

Keywords:  photography, history of photography, landscape, tourism, Japanese Colonial era

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本期主視覺提供│飛行塔(來源:《始政四十周年記念臺灣博覽會寫真帖》)

 

Online ISSN 1560-4713
GPN 2008700071