現代美術學報│32期

 

主編語
Editor-in-chief’s Note

從近代史的角度觀看,東南亞各國與台灣在現代藝術的發展過程中(廣義而言,現代化同意於西化),都呈現一個明顯的共同特點──現代化進程與被殖民經驗兩者互為因果且緊密相扣合。就台灣方面而言,現代藝術的前輩們對西方藝術的學習,幾乎是透過在台的日籍美術教師的啟蒙,進而遠渡重洋前往當時的統治者日本進修;無獨有偶,相同的軌跡也在印尼、菲律賓、緬甸、越南等國的現代藝術發展史得到印證。例如,二戰前在越南現代美術發展上佔有一席重要地位的「印度支那美術學院」(École des beaux-arts de l’Indochine),便是由法國藝術家維克多.塔迪悠(Victor Tardieu)與曾經留學巴黎美術學院的在地藝術家阮南山所成立。

 

2015年本館主辦之國際學術研討會「東南亞與台灣:視覺藝術的現代性與後殖民表現」引起國內藝術界及學界對該議題的關注,因此擬延續該熱潮,將研討會之主題設定為本期學報之專題,期待獲得更進一步的探討。  檢閱完整文章   下載完整文章(PDF)

 

 

 

 

巴基昂梭(1923-1990): 自主藝術現代性之策略

Bagyi Aung Soe (1923-1990): Strategies for an Autonomous & Compassionate Artistic Modernity

郭映思 Yin KER

南洋理工大學設計與媒體學院助理教授

Assistant Professor, Nanyang Technological University, School of Art, Design & Media

摘要

本文關於緬甸藝術家巴基昂梭 (1923-1990) 根據由拉賓德拉納特.泰戈爾 (1861-1941) 所定義,隨後由南達拉爾.鮑斯 (1882-1966) 在和平鄉的維斯瓦.巴拉迪大學所實踐的「真正的現代主義」而審驗的自主藝術現代性。首先,本文欲理解昂梭如何解釋其藝術策略中對「現代」、「藝術 」與「藝術家」的精神概念,以推敲其建立在多元的圖像傳統與古老的心靈文化技術,進而領先於國際現代藝術之藝術。本文接著探討昂梭如何通過佛教思想、修行與圖像,創立以「全世界的各個傳統」為基礎「最進步的現代藝術」的藝術風格。如此獨特的自主藝術現代性又留下了什麼樣的傳承?本文將細讀昂梭的作品與書寫,研究其在1950至1980 年代所建立的藝術風格。

 

Abstract

Following “The Question of the Emergence of Modern Burmese Art: Kin Maung (Bank)(1908-1983) and Bagyi Aung Soe (1924-1990)” (2014) on the unevenness and plurality of the modern in twentieth-century painting in Myanmar, this essay expands on Aung Soe’s assimilation and innovation of “true modernism” as defined by Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) in reaction to imperialism and colonization, and as implemented by Nandalal Bose (1882-1966) in the pedagogical program of the Viśva-Bhāratī University in Śāntiniketan. Through a selection of Aung Soe’s works and writings from the 1950s to the 1980s, it investigates the strategies he adopted to formulate an artistic modernity aligned with Tagore’s vision of absolute autonomy. The first part probes his constructs of the “modern,” “art” and “artist” that paved the way to a Burmese and modern pictorial idiom founded upon a diversity of artistic traditions in conjunction with ancient spiritual technology. The second part examines how Buddhist thought, practice and imagery next provided him with the means to create “the most advanced of modern art” that is the sum of “all the traditions of the world,” and the final part addresses the implications of this singular conception of artistic modernity with respect to his legacy.

關鍵字:現代緬甸藝術、現代東南亞藝術、佛教藝術、和平鄉、泰戈爾

Keywords: Modern Burmese art, Modern Southeast Asian art, Buddhist art, Śāntiniketan, Tagore

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未經說明的狀況:想像另一類的馬來西亞當代藝術

Unspoken Condition: Imagining an Alternative Malaysia Contemporary Art

蔡長璜 Chai Chang-hwang

獨立策展人及研究者

Independent Curator and Researcher

摘要

始於90年代之初,綜觀馬來西亞在地政治、經濟、文化政策以及施政方面均出現鬆綁傾向,藝術工作者也因此借勢爭取更多有益於發展的社會資本:這些符合自主性原則的所作所為,在軟、硬體設施皆缺乏規劃的馬來西亞開始開展、落實、乃至於形成一個足以互惠互利的關係網絡,亦即,獨立圈子。這些積極主動的獨立行動和自我組織的另類藝術空間顯然更能彰顯多樣性、應急性和實驗性的試探。惟從文化再製的面向來講,新生代中介者始終依循他/她們個人的自由意志、認知需求或生存技能,在主流和非主流之間任意滑動、位移,漸進地開創出另一類的生產機制(或體系);類似策略性操作不僅僅強化了中介者自我的獨立精神,甚至驅使獨立圈子變成一個充滿動勢的可能空間。本文主要是梳理獨立圈子於馬來西亞當代藝術的發展過程中所遭遇的各種問題與挑戰,場域外部的社會/文化條件和場域內部的歷史/美學軌跡,兩者都是制定相關解釋框架所不可或缺的參考依據

 

Abstract

As an overview, since the early Nineties, when the local political, economic, cultural policies and governance aspects appeared to be less-regulated, art practitioners had taken the occasion to strive for more social capital with developmental benefits: in Malaysia which lacks planning in both software and hardware infrastructures, such actions embodying autonomous principles began to grow, took root and shaping to a mutual benefits network, namely, independent circle. Clearly, both the pro-active independent initiatives and self-organized alternative spaces could better manifest a diverse, contingent and experimental approaches. However, from the aspect of cultural reproduction, these agents from the new generation stay true to their individual free will, cognitive needs or survival skills, and slide, displace randomly between the mainstream and non-mainstream, creating a different form of production mechanisms (or systems); besides strengthen the independent spirit of the operative subjects, these strategically maneuverings further drive the circle becomes a space of possibilities filled with momentum. This paper aims to analyze the various problems and challenges faced in the progress of the independent circle in the contemporary Malaysian art scene. Both the social/ cultural conditions outside the field, and historical/aesthetic trajectories within the field, are indispensable references that interrelated to the configuration of the interpretative framework.

關鍵字:獨立圈子、獨立行動 、另類藝術、另類體系

Keywords: Independent Circle, Independent Initiatives, Alternative Art, Alternative System

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地方:流變的藝術場域 Places: Becoming Artistic Fields

羅秀芝  

Sandy Hsiu-chih Lo

獨立策展人

Independent Curator

摘要

從現代美術到當代藝術,所謂的「藝術」一直以「凝視」(gaze)為核心,建構了以作者、作品、觀者為基點的「再現」邏輯美學框架;構築去日常生活空間與社會脈絡的抽象空間(通常為美術館或畫廊),以做為展示藝術作品的場域。

 

本文則以「策展地誌學」為角度,以柬埔寨金邊的「沙沙藝術計劃」和吉隆坡的Lostgens’為例,嘗試對東南亞當代藝術的社會實踐與知識生產進行思考。策展地誌學挪用詹明信(Fredric Jameson)所主張的認知繪圖美學,企圖在全球系統下藉由增強某種全新的地方感而賦予個人主體性,並以複雜的再現辯證法創造全新的再現模式,以便更準確地自我定位和增進認識世界的能力,進而精確再現自我與真實處境的想像關係。認知繪圖關乎自我定位和認識世界,「地方」也是一種觀看、認識和理解世界的方式。我們若把世界看成由各種不同地方的組成,就得以看見不同的事物。如果以認知繪圖的起點自我定位,那麼「地方」就是自我認同與世界觀的定位錨。以策展地誌學進行的社會實踐與知識生產,強調關注地理和文化特殊性的「情境知識」,而非普世性的知識,目的在於建立與生活連結的美學概念,視群眾為積極的參與者而非被動的「凝視」者,並將地方視為流變的藝術場域。

 

Abstract

Using“Sa Sa Art Projects” in Phnom Penh and the Lostgens’ Art Space in Kuala Lumpur as examples, this paper attempts to explore the social practice and knowledge production in South-eastern Asian contemporary art from the perspective of “curating topography”.

 

The conception of “curating topography” appropriates the cognitive mapping proposed by Fredric Jameson. It tries to endow individual subjectivity by intensifying new sense of place in a global system, and creates new model of representation with complex representational dialectics, in order to enhance the self-positioning accuracy, prove the ability of understanding the world, and represent the imaginative relationship between oneself and the real situation.

 

Cognitive mapping is related to self-positioning and understanding the world, and “place”is also a way of seeing, knowing and understand the world. If we regard the world as a composition of different places, we can see different matters. Just like what David Harvey has said, “The preservation or construction of a sense of place is then an active moment in the passage from memory to hope, from past to future.” The place is regarded as the foundation of resistance of politics and an important force to fight capitalist commodity f low and monetization. It activates the environment and society by combining local characteristics and recovering collective memories.

 

Basing on the concept of “curating topography,” the social practice and knowledge production emphasize the “situated knowledge” which is expected to focus on the geographical and cultural specificity instead of universal knowledge; regard audiences as active participants rather than passive viewers; and transform places into becoming artistic fields.

關鍵詞:策展地誌學、認知繪圖、地方感、情境知識,藝術領域
Keywords: curating topography, cognitive mapping, sense of place, situated knowledge,
artistic fields

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本期主視覺提供│巴基昂梭,無題〈Myawadi雜誌插圖〉,1988。 攝影:郭映思

 

Online ISSN 1560-4713
GPN 2008700071